Which one of the following is a symmetric key system using 64-bit blocks?
DES is the archetypal block cipher—an algorithm that takes a fixed-length string of plaintext bits and transforms it through a series of complicated operations into another ciphertext bitstring of the same length. In the case of DES, the block size is 64 bits. DES also uses a key to customize the transformation, so that decryption can supposedly only be performed by those who know the particular key used to encrypt. The key ostensibly consists of 64 bits; however, only 56 of these are actually used by the algorithm. Eight bits are used solely for checking parity, and are thereafter discarded. Hence the effective key length is 56 bits.
Which of the following acts as a verifier for the certificate authority?
Registration authorities exist for many standards organizations, such as ANNA (Association of National Numbering Agencies for ISIN), the Object Management Group, W3C, IEEE and others. In general, registration authorities all perform a similar function, in promoting the use of a particular standard through facilitating its use. This may be by applying the standard, where appropriate, or by verifying that a particular application satisfies the standard's tenants. Maintenance agencies, in contrast, may change an element in a standard based on set rules – such as the creation or change of a currency code when a currency is created or revalued (i.e. TRL to TRY for Turkish lira). The Object Management Group has an additional concept of certified provider, which is deemed an entity permitted to perform some functions on behalf of the registration authority, under specific processes and procedures documented within the standard for such a role.
A _____ is a function that takes a variable-size input m and returns a fixed-size string.
A hash function is any function that can be used to map data of arbitrary size to fixed-size values.
In which of the following password protection technique, random strings of characters are added to the password before calculating their hashes?
A salt is random data that is used as an additional input to a one-way function that hashes data, a password or passphrase. Salts are used to safeguard passwords in storage. Historically a password was stored in plaintext on a system, but over time additional safeguards were developed to protect a user's password against being read from the system.
A new salt is randomly generated for each password. In a typical setting, the salt and the password (or its version after key stretching) are concatenated and processed with a cryptographic hash function, and the output hash value (but not the original password) is stored with the salt in a database. Hashing allows for later authentication without keeping and therefore risking exposure of the plaintext password in the event that the authentication data store is compromised.
Salts defend against a pre-computed hash attack, e.g. rainbow tables.Since salts do not have to be memorized by humans they can make the size of the hash table required for a successful attack prohibitively large without placing a burden on the users. Since salts are different in each case, they also protect commonly used passwords, or those users who use the same password on several sites, by making all salted hash instances for the same password different from each other.
Electromechanical rotor-based cipher used in World War II
The Enigma machine is an encryption device developed and used in the early- to mid-20th century to protect commercial, diplomatic and military communication. It was employed extensively by Nazi Germany during World War II, in all branches of the German military.
Enigma has an electromechanical rotor mechanism that scrambles the 26 letters of the alphabet.
Encryption of the same plain text with the same key results in the same cipher text. Use of an IV that is XORed with the first block of plain text solves this problem.
The simplest of the encryption modes is the electronic codebook (ECB) mode (named after conventional physical codebooks). The message is divided into blocks, and each block is encrypted separately.
The disadvantage of this method is a lack of diffusion. Because ECB encrypts identical plaintext blocks into identical ciphertext blocks, it does not hide data patterns well. ECB is not recommended for use in cryptographic protocols.
ECB mode can also make protocols without integrity protection even more susceptible to replay attacks, since each block gets decrypted in exactly the same way.
You have been tasked with selecting a digital certificate standard for your company to use. Which one of the following was an international standard for the format and information contained in a digital certificate?
X.509 is a standard defining the format of public key certificates. X.509 certificates are used in many Internet protocols, including TLS/SSL, which is the basis for HTTPS, the secure protocol for browsing the web. They are also used in offline applications, like electronic signatures. An X.509 certificate contains a public key and an identity (a hostname, or an organization, or an individual), and is either signed by a certificate authority or self-signed. When a certificate is signed by a trusted certificate authority, or validated by other means, someone holding that certificate can rely on the public key it contains to establish secure communications with another party, or validate documents digitally signed by the corresponding private key.
Early attempt to make substitution ciphers more robust, masks letter frequencies, plain text letters map to multiple cipher text symbols.
An early attempt to increase the difficulty of frequency analysis attacks on substitution ciphers was to disguise plaintext letter frequencies by homophony. In these ciphers, plaintext letters map to more than one ciphertext symbol. Usually, the highest-frequency plaintext symbols are given more equivalents than lower frequency letters. In this way, the frequency distribution is flattened, making analysis more difficult.
How can rainbow tables be defeated?
Salts also combat the use of hash tables and rainbow tables for cracking passwords. A hash table is a large list of pre-computed hashes for commonly used passwords. For a password file without salts, an attacker can go through each entry and look up the hashed password in the hash table or rainbow table. If the look-up is considerably faster than the hash function (which it often is), this will considerably speed up cracking the file. However, if the password file is salted, then the hash table or rainbow table would have to contain "salt . password" pre-hashed. If the salt is long enough and sufficiently random, this is very unlikely. Unsalted passwords chosen by humans tend to be vulnerable to dictionary attacks since they have to be both short and meaningful enough to be memorized. Even a small dictionary (or its hashed equivalent, a hash table) is significant help cracking the most commonly used passwords. Since salts do not have to be memorized by humans they can make the size of the rainbow table required for a successful attack prohibitively large without placing a burden on the users.
As a network administrator, you have implemented WPA2 encryption in your corporate wireless network. The WPA2's ________ integrity check mechanism provides security against a replay attack.
A cipher block chaining message authentication code (CBC-MAC) is a technique for constructing a message authentication code from a block cipher. The message is encrypted with some block cipher algorithm in CBC mode to create a chain of blocks such that each block depends on the proper encryption of the previous block. This interdependence ensures that a change to any of the plaintext bits will cause the final encrypted block to change in a way that cannot be predicted or counteracted without knowing the key to the block cipher. Using in WPA2 for integrity check and provides security against a replay attack.
Which of the following asymmetric algorithms is described by U.S. Patent 5,231,668 and FIPS 186
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) proposed DSA for use in their Digital Signature Standard (DSS) in 1991, and adopted it as FIPS 186 in 1994.
DSA is covered by U.S. Patent 5,231,668 , filed July 26, 1991 and now expired, and attributed to David W. Kravitz, a former NSA employee.
Which of the following uses an 80 bit key on 64 bit blocks?
Skipjack uses an 80-bit key to encrypt or decrypt 64-bit data blocks. It is an unbalanced Feistel network with 32 rounds.
Asymmetric encryption method developed in 1984. It is used in PGP implementations and GNU Privacy Guard Software. Consists of 3 parts: key generator, encryption algorithm, and decryption algorithm.
the ElGamal encryption system is an asymmetric key encryption algorithm for public-key cryptography which is based on the Diffie–Hellman key exchange. It was described by Taher Elgamal in 1985. ElGamal encryption is used in the free GNU Privacy Guard software, recent versions of PGP, and other cryptosystems. The Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) is a variant of the ElGamal signature scheme, which should not be confused with ElGamal encryption.
A symmetric block cipher designed in 1993 by Bruce Schneier. Was intended as a replacement for DES. Like DES it is a 16 round Feistel working on 64bit blocks. Can have bit sizes 32bits to 448bits.
Blowfish is a symmetric-key block cipher, designed in 1993 by Bruce Schneier and included in many cipher suites and encryption products. Blowfish provides a good encryption rate in software and no effective cryptanalysis of it has been found to date. However, the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) now receives more attention, and Schneier recommends Twofish for modern applications.
Blowfish has a 64-bit block size and a variable key length from 32 bits up to 448 bits. It is a 16-round Feistel cipher and uses large key-dependent S-boxes.
Which one of the following terms describes two numbers that have no common factors?
In number theory, two integers a and b are said to be relatively prime, mutually prime, or coprime if the only positive integer (factor) that divides both of them is 1. Consequently, any prime number that divides one of a or b does not divide the other. This is equivalent to their greatest common divisor (gcd) being 1.
Which of the following techniques is used (other than brute force) to attempt to derive a key?
Cryptanalysis is the study of analyzing information systems in order to study the hidden aspects of the systems. Cryptanalysis is used to breach cryptographic security systems and gain access to the contents of encrypted messages, even if the cryptographic key is unknown.
Which one of the following is an algorithm that uses variable length key from 1 to 256 bytes, which constitutes a state table that is used for subsequent generation of pseudorandom bytes and then a pseudorandom string of bits, which is XORed with the plaintext to produce the ciphertext?
RC4 (Rivest Cipher 4 also known as ARC4 or ARCFOUR meaning Alleged RC4, see below) is a stream cipher. While it is remarkable for its simplicity and speed in software, multiple vulnerabilities have been discovered in RC4, rendering it insecure. It is especially vulnerable when the beginning of the output keystream is not discarded, or when nonrandom or related keys are used. Particularly problematic uses of RC4 have led to very insecure protocols such as WEP.
The key-scheduling algorithm is used to initialize the permutation in the array "S". "keylength" is defined as the number of bytes in the key and can be in the range 1 ≤ keylength ≤ 256, typically between 5 and 16, corresponding to a key length of 40 – 128 bits. First, the array "S" is initialized to the identity permutation. S is then processed for 256 iterations in a similar way to the main PRGA, but also mixes in bytes of the key at the same time.
Which algorithm implements an unbalanced Feistel cipher?
Skipjack uses an 80-bit key to encrypt or decrypt 64-bit data blocks. It is an unbalanced Feistel network with 32 rounds.
Which one of the following wireless standards uses the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) using the Counter Mode-Cipher Block Chaining (CBC)-Message Authentication Code (MAC) Protocol (CCMP)?
WPA2 use the Counter Mode-Cipher Block Chaining (CBC)-Message Authentication Code (MAC) Protocol (CCMP).
A symmetric Stream Cipher published by the German engineering firm Seimans in 1993. A software based stream cipher that uses a Lagged Fibonacci generator along with concepts borrowed from shrinking generator ciphers.
The FISH (FIbonacci SHrinking) stream cipher is a fast software based stream cipher using Lagged Fibonacci generators, plus a concept from the shrinking generator cipher. It was published by Siemens in 1993. FISH is quite fast in software and has a huge key length. However, in the same paper where he proposed Pike, Ross Anderson showed that FISH can be broken with just a few thousand bits of known plaintext.
Which of the following is a fundamental principle of cryptography that holds that the algorithm can be publicly disclosed without damaging security?
Kerckhoffs's principle (also called Kerckhoffs's desideratum, assumption, axiom, doctrine or law) of cryptography was stated by Netherlands born cryptographer Auguste Kerckhoffs in the 19th century: A cryptosystem should be secure even if everything about the system, except the key, is public knowledge.
Kerckhoffs's principle was reformulated (or possibly independently formulated) by American mathematician Claude Shannon as "the enemy knows the system", i.e., "one ought to design systems under the assumption that the enemy will immediately gain full familiarity with them". In that form, it is called Shannon's maxim. This concept is widely embraced by cryptographers, in contrast to "security through obscurity", which is not.
A cryptanalysis success where the attacker discovers additional plain texts (or cipher texts) not previously known.
The results of cryptanalysis can also vary in usefulness. For example, cryptographer Lars Knudsen (1998) classified various types of attack on block ciphers according to the amount and quality of secret information that was discovered:
Total break — the attacker deduces the secret key.
Global deduction — the attacker discovers a functionally equivalent algorithm for encryption and decryption, but without learning the key.
Instance (local) deduction — the attacker discovers additional plaintexts (or ciphertexts) not previously known.
Information deduction — the attacker gains some Shannon information about plaintexts (or ciphertexts) not previously known.
Distinguishing algorithm — the attacker can distinguish the cipher from a random permutation.
Which one of the following attempts to hide data in plain view?
Steganography is the practice of concealing a file, message, image, or video within another file, message, image, or video. The word steganography comes from Greek steganographia, which combines the words steganós , meaning "covered or concealed", and -graphia meaning "writing".
What is a "Collision attack" in cryptography?
Collision attacks try to find two inputs producing the same
A collision attack on a cryptographic hash tries to find two inputs producing the same hash value, i.e. a hash collision. This is in contrast to a preimage attack where a specific target hash value is specified.
The art and science of writing hidden messages so that no one suspects the existence of the message, a type of security through obscurity. Message can be hidden in picture or audio file for example. Uses least significant bits in a file to store data.
Steganography is the practice of concealing a file, message, image, or video within another file, message, image, or video.
The first recorded use of the term was in 1499 by Johannes Trithemius in his Steganographia, a treatise on cryptography and steganography, disguised as a book on magic. Generally, the hidden messages appear to be (or to be part of) something else: images, articles, shopping lists, or some other cover text. For example, the hidden message may be in invisible ink between the visible lines of a private letter. Some implementations of steganography that lack a shared secret are forms of security through obscurity, and key-dependent steganographic schemes adhere to Kerckhoffs's principle.
Ferris has been assigned the task of selecting security for his company's wireless network. It is important that he pick the strongest form of wireless security. Which one of the following is the strongest wireless security?
WPA (sometimes referred to as the draft IEEE 802.11i standard) became available in 2003. The Wi-Fi Alliance intended it as an intermediate measure in anticipation of the availability of the more secure and complex WPA2, which became available in 2004 and is a common shorthand for the full IEEE 802.11i (or IEEE 802.11i-2004) standard.